This work targets mathematical solutions and software for complex numerical simulation and optimization problems. Characteristics are the combination of different models and software modules and the need for massively parallel execution on supercomputers. We consider two different types of multi-component problems in Part I and Part II of the thesis: (i) Surface coupled fluid-structure interactions and (ii) analysis of medical MR imaging data of brain tumor patients. In (i), we establish highly accurate simulations by combining different aspects such as fluid flow and arterial wall deformation in hemodynamics simulations or fluid flow, heat transfer and mechanical stresses in cooling systems. For (ii), we focus on (a) facilitating the transfer of information such as functional brain regions from a statistical healthy atlas brain to the individual patient brain (which is topologically different due to the tumor), and (b) to allow for patient specific tumor progression simulations based on the estimation of biophysical parameters via inverse tumor growth simulation (given a single snapshot in time, only). Applications and specific characteristics of both problems are very distinct, yet both are hallmarked by strong inter-component relations and result in formidable, very large, coupled systems of partial differential equations.
Part I targets robust and efficient quasi-Newton methods for black-box surface-coupling of partitioned fluid-structure interaction simulations. The partitioned approach allows for great flexibility and exchangeable of sub-components. However, breaking up multi-physics into single components requires advanced coupling strategies to ensure correct inter-component relations and effectively tackle instabilities. Due to the black-box paradigm, solver internals are hidden and information exchange is reduced to input/output relations. We develop advanced quasi-Newton methods that effectively establish the equation coupling of two (or more) solvers based on solving a non-linear fixed-point equation at the interface. Established state of the art methods fall short by either requiring costly tuning of problem dependent parameters, or becoming infeasible for large scale problems. In developing parameter-free, linear-complexity alternatives, we lift the robustness and parallel scalability of quasi-Newton methods for partitioned surface-coupled multi-physics simulations to a new level. The developed methods are implemented in the parallel, general purpose coupling tool preCICE.
Part II targets MR image analysis of glioblastoma multiforme pathologies and patient specific simulation of brain tumor progression. We apply a joint medical image registration and biophysical inversion strategy, targeting at facilitating diagnosis, aiding and supporting surgical planning, and improving the efficacy of brain tumor therapy. We propose two problem formulations and decompose the resulting large-scale, highly non-linear and non-convex PDE-constrained optimization problem into two tightly coupled problems: inverse tumor simulation and medical image registration. We deduce a novel, modular Picard iteration-type solution strategy. We are the first to successfully solve the inverse tumor-growth problem based on a single patient snapshot with a gradient-based approach. We present the joint inversion framework SIBIA, which scales to very high image resolutions and parallel execution on tens of thousands of cores. We apply our methodology to synthetic and actual clinical data sets and achieve excellent normal-to-abnormal registration quality and present a proof of concept for a very promising strategy to obtain clinically relevant biophysical information.
Advanced inexact-Newton methods are an essential tool for both parts. We connect the two parts by pointing out commonalities and differences of variants used in the two communities in unified notation.