Description of a well-defined approach for adoption of software reuse tech

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2.0.5, SPC-92051-CMC, 01-NOV-92
Software Productivity Consortium
Approved for public release; distribution unlimited
1992 SPC


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Reuse Adoption Guidebook

    As demonstrated in European, Japanese, and U.S. organizations, the
ability to reuse significant portions of existing software assets offers
significant potential for increasing engineering productivity,
speed-to-market, and system quality and for decreasing the costs of
building and maintaining large, software-intensive systems. However,
instituting an effective reuse practice in software development poses
substantial challenges to an organization. These challenges derive from
a wide variety of technical, managerial, economic, social, and legal
factors, which must be addressed if organizations are to succeed.
    This guidebook assists your organization in meeting the "reuse
challenge" through a well-defined approach for adoption and
institutionalization of software reuse technology to improve
productivity, quality, and competitiveness. This guidebook will help

* Understand your organization's business environment (e.g., market,
competition, technology) and estimate the potential for reuse in your
business area.

* Understand your organization's abilities (e.g., process, tools,
skills, culture) to practice reuse.

* Initiate, plan, and implement a program to improve your organization's
ability to effectively exploit the potential for reuse in your business

    Reuse adoption is envisioned as part of a continuous process
improvement program; thus, the guidebook assists the end user in
identifying both near- and long-term needs and actions. It provides
guidance for developing a plan that will put the technology into
practice, and it provides guidance on how to address critical
institutional barriers, risks, and planning areas that must be addressed
to make a reuse effort successful.

Why Do You Need a Process for Reuse Adoption?

    You need a process for reuse adoption to increase the effectiveness
and the likelihood of success of your organization's effort to adopt
reuse. You want to avoid the situation in which the adopting
organization has only a vague notion of the current situation or what is
to be accomplished. Without a well-developed understanding of how reuse
relates to its current practice or how reuse will fit into the overall
software development effort, the adoption effort is likely to fail.
    You are probably aware of efforts to incorporate reuse that have had
disappointing results or of organizations that are still avoiding reuse
altogether. They are typically characterized by:

* Lack of recognition of the potential benefits of reuse

* Incomplete understanding of what is necessary to make reuse work

* Lack of management commitment and direction

* Tendency to focus on technical issues while neglecting social issues

    Based on a survey of 113 individuals from 29 companies, Frakes and
Fox (1993) report that management and infrastructure support are
critical for systematic reuse but that most organizations are providing
inadequate support. The report also indicates that the factors impeding
reuse are lack of time to practice reuse, lack of trust in externally
developed software, and lack of computer-aided software engineering
(CASE) and development process support for reuse.
    This guidebook helps you avoid the situation and the problems
described above by providing a well-defined, bounded series of steps,
guidelines, and tools that you use to address the myriad issues critical
to success: the Reuse Adoption process.

How to Use this Guidebook

    This guidebook consists of a Reuse Adoption process specification,
supporting methods and guidelines, and examples of artifacts produced by
the process.  The organization of the guidebook is:

Section 1 defines major terms and messages in this guidebook. It
identifies reasons for incorporating reuse into your organization and
for using this guidebook's Reuse Adoption process as an aid. Finally, it
identifies some of the foundations of the process.

Section 2, Overview of the Reuse Adoption Process, introduces the major
concepts, identifies the roles in which people participate, and
describes the major activities of the process.

Section 3, Specification of the Reuse Adoption Process, identifies, in a
structured format, the details of the activities and provides guidance
on how to perform each of the activities.

Section 4, Domain Assessment, describes a method for qualitatively
estimating the potential for reuse in an organization's business area.

Section 5, Reuse Capability Assessment, describes a method for
understanding an organization's process with respect to reuse sufficient
for planning improvements-identifying process strengths and improvement

Section 6, Reuse Adoption Strategy Development, provides guidance on
developing a course of action to implement reuse in an organization in
support of organizational objectives.

    The Appendixes provide models, guidelines, examples, and background
information that support application of the Reuse Adoption process.
Included are:

* Domain Assessment Model is used to determine which parts of an
organization's business area are good candidates for reuse.

* Reuse Capability Model is used to assess the effectiveness of current
reuse activities and to support development of goals.

* Reuse Adoption Risks identifies reuse-related situations and events
that you should be aware of and manage.

* Summary of Legal and Contractual Reuse Issues summarizes the current
laws and contracting practices that relate to reuse. Its primary focus
is on DoD contracting.

* Reuse Assessment Report Annotated Outline provides a model report of
the results of the domain and reuse capability assessments.

* Reuse Action Plan Annotated Outline provides a model plan for
implementing reuse in an organization.

* Assessment Worksheets provides the forms used in conducting domain and
reuse capability assessments.


2.0.5  1 June 94  Initial release to the PAL


Approved for public release; Distribution unlimited


This documentation is provided "AS IS" and without any expressed or
implied warranties whatsoever.  No warranties as to performance,
merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose exist.

The user must assume the entire risk and liability of using this
document.  In no event shall any person or organization of people be
held responsible for any direct, indirect, consequential or
inconsequential damages or lost profits.