- I.0 GENERAL
- I.1 SYMBOLIC AND ALGEBRAIC MANIPULATION (revised 1998)
- I.1.0 General
- I.1.1 Expressions and Their Representation
(see also E.1,
E.2)
*Representations (general and polynomial)**Simplification of expressions*

- I.1.2 Algorithms
(see also F.2.1,
F.2.2)
*Algebraic algorithms**Analysis of algorithms**Nonalgebraic algorithms*

- I.1.3 Languages and Systems
(see also D.3.2,
D.3.3,
F.2.2)
*Evaluation strategies**Nonprocedural languages*(retired since 1998)*Special-purpose algebraic systems**Special-purpose hardware*(retired since 1998)*Substitution mechanisms*(retired since 1998)

- I.1.4 Applications
- I.1.m Miscellaneous

- I.2 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
- I.2.0 General
*Cognitive simulation**Philosophical foundations*

- I.2.1 Applications and Expert Systems
(see also H.4,
J)
*Cartography**Games*(retired since 1991)*Industrial automation**Law**Medicine and science**Natural language interfaces**Office automation*

- I.2.2 Automatic Programming
(see also D.1.2,
F.3.1,
F.4.1)
*Automatic analysis of algorithms**Program modification**Program synthesis**Program transformation**Program verification*

- I.2.3 Deduction and Theorem Proving
(see also F.4.1)
*Answer/reason extraction**Deduction (e.g., natural, rule-based)**Inference engines*(new)*Logic programming**Mathematical induction**Metatheory*(retired since 1998)*Nonmonotonic reasoning and belief revision**Resolution**Uncertainty, ``fuzzy,'' and probabilistic reasoning*

- I.2.4 Knowledge Representation Formalisms and Methods
(see also F.4.1)
*Frames and scripts**Modal logic*(new)*Predicate logic**Relation systems**Representation languages**Representations (procedural and rule-based)**Semantic networks**Temporal logic*(new)

- I.2.5 Programming Languages and Software
(see also D.3.2)
*Expert system tools and techniques*

- I.2.6 Learning
(see also K.3.2)
*Analogies**Concept learning**Connectionism and neural nets**Induction**Knowledge acquisition**Language acquisition**Parameter learning*

- I.2.7 Natural Language Processing
*Discourse**Language generation**Language models**Language parsing and understanding**Machine translation**Speech recognition and synthesis**Text analysis*

- I.2.8 Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search
(see also F.2.2)
*Backtracking**Control theory*(new)*Dynamic programming**Graph and tree search strategies**Heuristic methods**Plan execution, formation, and generation**Scheduling*(new)

- I.2.9 Robotics
*Autonomous vehicles*(new)*Commercial robots and applications*(new)*Kinematics and dynamics*(new)*Manipulators**Operator interfaces*(new)*Propelling mechanisms**Sensors**Workcell organization and planning*(new)

- I.2.10 Vision and Scene Understanding
(see also I.4.8,
I.5)
*3D/stereo scene analysis*(new)*Architecture and control structures*(retired since 1998)*Intensity, color, photometry, and thresholding**Modeling and recovery of physical attributes**Motion**Perceptual reasoning**Representations, data structures, and transforms**Shape**Texture**Video analysis*(new)

- I.2.11 Distributed Artificial Intelligence
*Coherence and coordination**Intelligent agents*(new)*Languages and structures**Multiagent systems*(new)

- I.2.m Miscellaneous

- I.2.0 General
- I.3 COMPUTER GRAPHICS
- I.3.0 General
- I.3.1 Hardware Architecture
(see also B.4.2)
*Graphics processors**Hardcopy devices*(retired since 1998)*Input devices**Parallel processing**Raster display devices**Storage devices*(retired since 1998)*Three-dimensional displays*(retired since 1998)*Vector display devices*(retired since 1998)

- I.3.2 Graphics Systems
(see also C.2.1,
C.2.4,
C.3)
*Distributed/network graphics**Remote systems*(retired since 1998)*Stand-alone systems*(retired since 1998)

- I.3.3 Picture/Image Generation
*Antialiasing*(retired since 1998)*Bitmap and framebuffer operations**Digitizing and scanning**Display algorithms**Line and curve generation**Viewing algorithms*

- I.3.4 Graphics Utilities
*Application packages**Device drivers*(retired since 1998)*Graphics editors**Graphics packages**Meta files*(retired since 1998)*Paint systems**Picture description languages*(retired since 1998)*Software support**Virtual device interfaces*

- I.3.5 Computational Geometry and Object Modeling
*Boundary representations**Constructive solid geometry (CSG)*(retired since 1998)*Curve, surface, solid, and object representations**Geometric algorithms, languages, and systems**Hierarchy and geometric transformations**Modeling packages**Object hierarchies**Physically based modeling**Splines*

- I.3.6 Methodology and Techniques
*Device independence*(retired since 1998)*Ergonomics**Graphics data structures and data types**Interaction techniques**Languages*(retired since 1998)*Standards*

- I.3.7 Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism
*Animation**Color, shading, shadowing, and texture**Fractals**Hidden line/surface removal**Radiosity**Raytracing**Virtual reality**Visible line/surface algorithms*

- I.3.8 Applications
- I.3.m Miscellaneous

- I.4 IMAGE PROCESSING AND COMPUTER VISION (revised 1998)
- I.4.0 General
*Image displays**Image processing software*

- I.4.1 Digitization and Image Capture (revised 1998)
*Camera calibration*(new)*Imaging geometry*(new)*Quantization**Radiometry*(new)*Reflectance*(new)*Sampling**Scanning*

- I.4.2 Compression (Coding)
(see also E.4)
*Approximate methods**Exact coding*(retired since 1998)

- I.4.3 Enhancement
*Filtering**Geometric correction**Grayscale manipulation**Registration**Sharpening and deblurring*(retired since 1998)*Smoothing*

- I.4.4 Restoration
*Inverse filtering*(retired since 1998)*Kalman filtering**Pseudoinverse restoration*(retired since 1998)*Wiener filtering*(retired since 1998)

- I.4.5 Reconstruction
*Series expansion methods**Summation methods*(retired since 1998)*Transform methods*

- I.4.6 Segmentation
*Edge and feature detection**Pixel classification**Region growing, partitioning**Relaxation*(new)

- I.4.7 Feature Measurement
*Feature representation*(new)*Invariants**Moments**Projections**Size and shape**Texture*

- I.4.8 Scene Analysis
*Color*(new)*Depth cues**Motion*(new)*Object recognition*(new)*Photometry**Range data**Sensor fusion**Shading*(new)*Shape*(new)*Stereo**Surface fitting*(new)*Time-varying imagery**Tracking*(new)

- I.4.9 Applications
- I.4.10 Image Representation
*Hierarchical**Morphological**Multidimensional**Statistical**Volumetric*

- I.4.m Miscellaneous

- I.4.0 General
- I.5 PATTERN RECOGNITION
- I.5.0 General
- I.5.1 Models
*Deterministic*(retired since 1998)*Fuzzy set**Geometric**Neural nets**Statistical**Structural*

- I.5.2 Design Methodology
*Classifier design and evaluation**Feature evaluation and selection**Pattern analysis*

- I.5.3 Clustering
*Algorithms**Similarity measures*

- I.5.4 Applications
*Computer vision**Signal processing**Text processing**Waveform analysis*

- I.5.5 Implementation
(see also C.3)
*Interactive systems**Special architectures*

- I.5.m Miscellaneous

- I.6 SIMULATION AND MODELING
(see also G.3)
- I.6.0 General
- I.6.1 Simulation Theory
*Model classification**Systems theory**Types of simulation (continuous and discrete)*(revised 1991)

- I.6.2 Simulation Languages
- I.6.3 Applications
- I.6.4 Model Validation and Analysis
- I.6.5 Model Development
*Modeling methodologies*

- I.6.6 Simulation Output Analysis
- I.6.7 Simulation Support Systems
*Environments*

- I.6.8 Types of Simulation
*Animation**Combined**Continuous**Discrete event**Distributed**Gaming**Monte Carlo**Parallel**Visual*

- I.6.m Miscellaneous

- I.7 DOCUMENT AND TEXT PROCESSING (revised 1998)
(see also H.4,
H.5)
- I.7.0 General
- I.7.1 Document and Text Editing (revised 1998)
*Document management*(new)*Languages*(retired since 1998)*Spelling*(retired since 1998)*Version control*(new)

- I.7.2 Document Preparation
*Desktop publishing**Format and notation**Hypertext/hypermedia**Index generation*(new)*Languages and systems**Markup languages*(new)*Multi/mixed media**Photocomposition/typesetting**Scripting languages*(new)*Standards*

- I.7.3 Index Generation (retired since 1998)
- I.7.4 Electronic Publishing (new) (see also H.5.4, J.7)
- I.7.5 Document Capture
(new) (see also I.4.1)
*Document analysis*(new)*Graphics recognition and interpretation*(new)*Optical character recognition (OCR)*(new)*Scanning*(new)

- I.7.m Miscellaneous

- I.m MISCELLANEOUS